### Five steps to eliminate Defects Per Opportunity

Six Sigma has many important metrics, which are all discussed in Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Training. Several of these metrics address defects. Six Sigma is all about reducing defects. Six Sigma courses are free. It is important to understand metrics that deal with defects. Six Sigma uses three primary metrics to measure defects: Defects Per Unit (DPU), and Defects Per Opportunity (DPO). Defects are also measured per million opportunities and parts per million. This article will focus on Defects per Opportunity (DPO).

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The Six Sigma metric that we’re discussing today is Defects-Per-Opportunity, which is abbreviated as DPO. Before we get to DPO, let’s first define the term “opportunity”. In Six Sigma methodology, the probability of making errors is referred to as “defects-per-opportunity”. The probabilities or possibilities are what determine the chances. We will later discuss a case involving the printing of business cards. Many things can go wrong when printing a business card. There may be a typo or an error in the card. There are four possible defects. There is a correlation between the number and severity of defects. The more opportunities there are, the more likely the process will make mistakes. Simply put, reducing or mitigating the number of opportunities can help you control the quality output of your process. This will allow you to deliver the results that your client expects.

What is DPO?

What is DPO? It is the ratio between the number of defects found in a sample and the total number possible. This ratio allows you to count the average number defects that occur in a sample group.

Five steps to calculate DPO

The five steps required to calculate the DPO of a process are listed below.

Step 1: Calculating DPO

The first step is to determine how many units will be sampled. Also, you need to determine the size of the sample group. As a general rule, the sample size should not exceed 100 ml. However, it should be small enough that it is manageable and large enough to address any problem.

Step 2: Calculating DPO

The second step is to determine how many defect opportunities are per unit. The following methods will be used to identify opportunities:

A list of possible defects or errors per product or service unit that customers will be interested in is a good idea.

Instead of focusing on the possible problems, but the places and processes that could lead to them,

Instead of focusing on rare defects or errors, focus on the routine.

Combining or merging related defects into one category

Step 3: Calculating DPO

The third step is to determine how many defect opportunities there are for the sample size under consideration. This is done by multiplying each unit in the sample group by the number defect opportunities per unit.

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Step 4: Calculating DPO

The fourth step is to count all the potential defective opportunities in the sample group. Simply count the number of opportunities in the sample group that are actually defective or error-prone.

Step 5: Calculating DPO

The fifth step is to divide total defects by total opportunities for the sample size under consideration. This gives you the DPO in decimal numbers, which can be converted into a percentage.

Illustration of DPO calculation

Do you know how DPO is calculated? Here’s a quick example of calculating defect opportunities. Mr. X is now in the business of printing visiting card. Each order is considered a unit. Each order can have four defects, i.e. a typo, incorrect, damaged, or incomplete. 50 orders were randomly sel